Full text of "Filipino Philosophy: A Critical Bibliography "
I frame the relationship between the Philippine state and National Artists by .. Johannes Fabian's called “intersubjective time” in my research. 32 Text in Filipino: “Sa konteksto ng pakikipaglaban para sa kalayaan sa panahong Amerikano. Within the therapeutic relationship, Emily also began to express negative THE SOMATIC DIALOGUE OF THE INTERSUBJECTIVE RELATIONSHIP A major. The fascinating thing about this question is that it 'exists' (in whatever sense it does exist) on a set of servers spread across the globe, and is read by people (for .
In fact, it is common to see individuals with different backgrounds such as way of thinking, believing, and behaving could easily come into conflict when they communicate. To avoid arriving at that point, Jurgen Habermas introduce a path leading to mutual understanding through his theory of communication.
Intersubjectivity - Wikipedia
He formulated four tests, or validity claims on comprehensibility, truth, truthfulness, and rightness that must occur in conversation to achieve mutual understanding. The first universal validity claim of Habermas on comprehensibility pertains to the use of ordinary language. If the meaning of a word or statement is defined by the ordinary language in which both speaker and hearer are familiar with then, for sure, understanding will be achieved, especially, if the ordinary language is the native language of both speaker and hearer.
- Filipino Philosophy: A Critical Bibliography, 1774-1997
This means to say, that for Habermas, the use of common language in which two individuals in a dialogue are familiar with is an important instrument towards understanding. The second universal validity claim of Habermas on truth refers to how true the uttered statement in reference to objective facts.
If customer asks a waiter for a glass of water, the request will surely be understood and it will be granted. Hence, it is also important that we have a genuine intention while conversing with others in order that we gain their trust.
For trust breaks down barriers of suspicions but nurtures and deepens relationship. Sometimes, familiarity with each other is helpful in determining the truthfulness of intention. These feelings become now a hindrance for understanding and the beginning of rejection. And lastly, the validity of claim of Habermas on rightness pertains to the acceptable tone and pitch of voice and expressions.
Filipinos, generally, are intimidated, irritated, and even threaten when someone talk with a high pitch or a loud voice as in a shouting manner. While low and gentle voice make us calm and relax and, in certain situation, make us recognize the sincere words of the others.
Hence, the manner of utterance or way of speaking use in conversation could either be a hindrance or means for genuine understanding. Comprehensibility, truth, truthfulness, and rightness, for Habermas, are significant factors for authentic dialogue to occur leading to better relationship. The byproduct of such communication is thus a transformation in the relationship of the two individuals engaged in a dialogue.
Habermas theory of communication reminds us on the importance of authentic communication in the cessation of conflicts, avoidance of misunderstanding, and establishment of intersubjective relationship.
Yet, this could be avoided when individuals are aware of how the use of language, the manner of speaking, the truthfulness of the words, and the sincerity of the intention are all affecting their understanding of the others and vice versa.
It would be hard for us to understand the others or to recognize those people with disabilities, the underprivileged, and the LGBT group unless we sit down and talk to them with an open ears and compassionate heart. The way man treats the machine as an object becomes also his way of treating the other human person. To radically break from these prevailing attitudes in order to establish an ethical principle on human relationship anchored on the dignity of the human person, Buber introduces his I-Thou philosophical theory.
Martin Buber —a Jewish philosopher, became famous through his philosophical writings entitled I and Thou Ich und Du. The major theme of the book is that authentic human existence manifests in genuine dialogue with each other, with the world, and even with God. Through experience, man collects data of the world, analyses, classifies, and theorizes about them.
Only when there is an I-I encounter can there be an experience Buber,pp. Love, for Buber, should not be understood as merely a mental or psychological state of the lovers but as a genuine relation between the loving beings Buber,p. Hence, for Buber, love is an I-Thou relation in which both subjects share a sense of caring, respect, commitment, and responsibility. The more that I-and-Thou share their reality, the more complete is their reality.
Buber, looking at the main problem of human society in his time, claims that the problem of human life in the modern age lies on the mode of the I—It relation. The human person, thus, becomes alienated in this It-world Buber,p.
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Buber further argues that there is something more lasting and more fulfilling when human persons encounter each other through an I-Thou mode of relationship. The psychological weight of one subject comes to bear on the minds of others depending on how they react to it, thereby creating an intersubjective experience that, without multiple consciousnesses interacting with each other, would be otherwise strictly solitary.
Love is a prime example of intersubjectivity that implies a shared feeling of care and affection, among others. Intersubjectivity is considered crucial not only at the relational level but also at the epistemological and even metaphysical levels.
For example, intersubjectivity is postulated as playing a role in establishing the truth of propositions, and constituting the so-called objectivity of objects. A central concern in consciousness studies of the past 50 years is the so-called problem of other minds, which asks how we can justify our belief that people have minds much like our own and predict others' mind-states and behavior, as our experience shows we often can.
In the debate between cognitive individualism and cognitive universalism, some aspects of thinking are neither solely personal nor fully universal. Cognitive sociology proponents argue for intersubjectivity—an intermediate perspective of social cognition that provides a balanced view between personal and universal views of our social cognition.
This approach suggests that, instead of being individual or universal thinkers, human beings subscribe to "thought communities"—communities of differing beliefs. Thought community examples include churches, professions, scientific beliefs, generations, nations, and political movements. But not all human beings think the same way universalism. Intersubjectivity argues that each thought community shares social experiences that are different from the social experiences of other thought communities, creating differing beliefs among people who subscribe to different thought communities.
These experiences transcend our subjectivity, which explains why they can be shared by the entire thought community. Beliefs are recast in terms of standards, which are set by thought communities. Phenomenology[ edit ] Edmund Husserlthe founder of phenomenologyrecognized the importance of intersubjectivity, and wrote extensively on the topic. In German, his writings on intersubjectivity are gathered in volumes 13—15 of the Husserliana.
In English, his best-known text on intersubjectivity is the Cartesian Meditations it is this text that features solely in the Husserl reader entitled The Essential Husserl. Some journals pop up every now and then like Karunungan whose latest issue—volume —came out after hibernating for some time. This chapter will go deeper into the analysis of three basic terms: The other important view is the traditional approach that identifies individual Filipino philosophers.
This approach is used in the discipline of philosophy; in that respect, it may likewise be called the philosophical approach to philosophy. The third important view conceives of Filipino philosophy from the constitutional or national perspective Gripaldo In this case, any philosophical work written by a Filipino including naturalized ones as defined by the Philippine Constitution is Filipino philosophy.
I call this view the constitutional or national approach in that it is defined in terms of nationality. In the light of hermeneutics see Nicholson One notices that this approach to Filipino philosophy is broad enough as to cover the other two approaches. However, one should likewise consider other nuances in the classification.
One uses two basic criteria: The authors cited hermeneutically extract or derive philosophical presuppositions from such sources. Hence, the collective nature of the extracted philosophy. In the traditional approach, the authors are also Filipinos but their subject matter is their own interpretations of universal philosophical themes. However, the resultant philosophy is individual—not collective—and could be highly original—not necessarily derivative.
In the constitutional approach—as strictly defined in Chapter I—the authors are Filipinos but their subject matter has been traditionally described as Western or Eastern, therefore nonFilipino. The nature of their work is basically expository and with no or very little original ideas as inputs. The exposition itself, however, is original in the sense that no such expository style has been used as exactly as it is except by the author himself. It is in this sense, I contend, that hermeneutically the resulting interpretative work is the expression of a Filipino mind.
Although the constitutional approach can broadly apply to the other two views in the sense that the authors are themselves Filipinos as defined in the Philippine constitution, I wish to limit its application to only the third view since its subject matter content or philosophical source is non-Filipino or non-native or non-original. Generally, the writer is only considered a Thomist, a Kantian, a Platonist, etc. He can graduate from this constitutional approach by becoming innovative or by inserting original ideas or insights into the work.
He then becomes a neo-Thomist, a neo-Kantian, etc. In that respect, he belongs now to the traditional-approach category. The authors of the anthropological and constitutional approaches are scholars or specialists in certain areas of concentration. The specialization need not be one but many and usually related. In the contemporary globalization scenario, multi-specialization has become necessary.
This scenario appears necessary for group survival; for individual survival multi-specialization becomes a must. There is a perspective that presents a union of the anthropological and the philosophical approaches to philosophy. This view is explicit in Gripaldo The closest expression of this dichotomy is the distinction made by Ramon Reyes It depends see Chapter I.
From the constitutional standpoint, the third view; from the anthropological standpoint, the first view; and from the philosophical standpoint, the second view. In the long, long past there was no Filipino concept of a nation. Each tribe had its own native philosophy in the anthropological sense. The concept of a Filipino nation took some time to develop. At any rate, although Rizal may have indeed been the First Filipino,1 the political expression of this qualification was enshrined only later in article 6, sections at leasttitle IV of the Malolos Constitution Filipinos as defined then were those born in Philippine territory sec.
Unfortunately, not all members of some tribes thought like Rizal or even in terms of the Constitution. Some even did not want themselves to be part of the Filipino Republic and preferred to make their ancestral lands independent.
And because the Maranao concept of the Filipino in the past was a Christian native, so the Moros would not want to be Christianized or be made Filipinos. The constitutional concept of the Filipino, as expressed in the various Philippine Constitutions, from toslowly filtered down to the consciousness of various tribes. The faster the members of the tribes or cultural communities are integrated into the body politic, the greater is their absorption of the concept of being Filipino and the lesser is their resistance to being Filipino.
Every now and then, of course, there are cases of individual and group resistance to this concept, mostly on political and historical grounds. Wonder Thales gave birth to ancient philosophy while doubt Descartes to modern philosophy.
Some writers consider Francis Bacon Tassi Contemporary Western philosophy is either existential-phenomenological Continental or analytic Anglo-American with few exceptions in between.
Morton White White While the soulsearcher concentrates on man and his situation in relation to himself and to others, including the Divine, by using generally the phenomenological and hermeneutic methods of analysis, the hairsplitter concentrates on just any topic with the desire to clarify, solve, or dissolve philosophical problems by using the logical and linguistic methods of analysis.
The line between hermeneutic exegetic and linguistic analyses is a very thin one indeed. Linguistic analysis involves interpretation while hermeneutic exegetic analysis involves language clarification. The latest development in contemporary philosophy is the emergence of a movement consisting of different philosophical persuasions called postmodernism. It is claimed to be postMarxist, post-analytic philosophy, poststructuralism, post-existential phenomenology, postfoundationalism, deconstructionist.
During the time of the ancient Greeks, philosophy was the search after truth or the search for knowledge, and the Greeks thought of wisdom as epistemic. Immanuel Kant see Beck Pure reason, however, leads us nowhere. Heidegger in Being and time in effect raises the issue: In view of the pervasiveness of existence, it is important to search for the ontological categories the existentials of existence by using the type of thinking that does not follow the traditional logico-empirical method.
He places epistemic knowledge in the realm of the natural sciences where man simply discovers the laws of nature. In effect he throws away philosophy as epistemic wisdom and concentrates on philosophy as phronetic wisdom.
In the light of this development, a historian of philosophy as a social scientist can no longer argue strongly for the traditional definition of philosophy. He has to transcend the biases of each school of philosophy and consider all their philosophical claims and activities as philosophy.
Political theory, as distinct from political science, is not fantasy or the parading of prejudices; nor is it an intellectual game. Still less is it linguistic analysis. It is an elaborate, rigorous, difficult, and useful undertaking.
It is as much needed as any of the sciences. Its purpose is not to tell us how things happen [i. To achieve that purpose, it must be systematic, self-consistent, and realistic. We learn to cope with the world, not by collecting principles at random, but by acquiring a coherent practical philosophy, which we acquire largely in the process of considering other philosophies of the same kind. Hence, anything that is theoretical is philosophical in this broad sense.
In other words, the common border between science and philosophy is theory. Some speculative theories are called scientific, i. In fact, to identify whether the work is philosophical is to concentrate on the work itself. It does not matter whether the author is anonymous or a social or natural scientist, a theologian, a poet or a man of letters, a professional philosopher, a lawyer, or a mailman.
It does not also matter if the work is lifted from sources other than a professional journal of philosophy. It can be lifted from a theology journal, a political science journal, a law journal, an economic journal, etc.
Not all the entries in this bibliography are, strictly speaking, a discussion of a philosophical subject matter. Some serve as a background to help one understand better the philosophical subject matter.
For example, a history of Filipino art may not contain any discussion of a theory of art, and may only contain a description of the historical development of different styles of art.