Comparison Table between Christianity, Islam and Judaism
Islam sees Judaism and Christianity as Muhammad himself is not divine, but a prophet chosen by God to deliver his spiritual connection to Islam by virtue of. Throughout the ages, many scholars, sages, and philosophers have share a wide variety of ideas about God, all of which are legitimate by Jewish standards. This one and only God has been affirmed by virtually all professing Jews in a . Little can be said of the relation between the religion of the patriarchs and the.
G-d changed Abram's name to Abraham father of manyand Sarai's to Sarah from "my princess" to "princess".
Sarah bore Abraham a son, Isaac in Hebrew, Yitzchaka name derived from the word "laughter," expressing Abraham's joy at having a son in his old age. Isaac was the ancestor of the Jewish people. Isaac Isaac was the subject of the tenth and most difficult test of Abraham's faith: G-d commanded Abraham to sacrifice Isaac as a burnt offering.
This test is known in Jewish tradition as the Akeidah the Binding, a reference to the fact that Isaac was bound on the altar. But this test is also an extraordinary demonstration of Isaac's own faith, because according to Jewish tradition, Isaac knew that he was to be sacrificed, yet he did not resist, and was united with his father in dedication. At the last moment, G-d sent an angel to stop the sacrifice. It is interesting to note that child sacrifice was a common practice in the region at the time.
Thus, to people of the time, the surprising thing about this story is not the fact that G-d asked Abraham to sacrifice his child, but that G-d stopped him. Judaism uses this story as evidence that G-d abhors human sacrifice. Judaism has always strongly opposed the practice of human sacrifice, commonplace in many other cultures at that time and place. Isaac later married Rebecca Rivkawho bore him fraternal twin sons: Jacob Ya'akov and Esau.
Jacob Israel Jacob and his brother Esau were at war with each other even before they were born. They struggled within Rebecca's womb. Esau was Isaac's favorite, because he was a good hunter, but the more spiritually-minded Jacob was Rebecca's favorite. Esau had little regard for the spiritual heritage of his forefathers, and sold his birthright of spiritual leadership to Jacob for a bowl of lentil stew.
When Isaac was growing old, Rebecca tricked him into giving Jacob a blessing meant for Esau. Esau was angry about this, and about the birthright, so Jacob fled to live with his uncle, where he met his beloved Rachel. Jacob was deceived into marrying Rachel's older sister, Leah, but later married Rachel as well, and Rachel and Leah's maidservants, Bilhah and Zilphah. Between these four women, Jacob fathered 12 sons and one daughter.
He prayed to G-d and gave his brother gifts. The night before he went to meet his brother, he sent his wives, sons, and things across the river, and was alone with G-d.
That night, he wrestled with a man until the break of day. As the dawn broke, Jacob demanded a blessing from the man, and the "man" revealed himself as an angel. He blessed Jacob and gave him the name "Israel" Yisraelmeaning "the one who wrestled with G-d" or "the Champion of G-d. The next day, Jacob met Esau and was welcomed by him.
Children of Israel Jacob fathered 12 sons: They are the ancestors of the tribes of Israel, and the ones for whom the tribes are named. Joseph is the father of two tribes: Joseph's older brothers were jealous of him, because he was the favorite of their father, and because he had visions that he would lead them all.
They sold Joseph into slavery and convinced their father that Joseph was dead. But this was all part of G-d's plan: Joseph was brought into Egypt, where his ability to interpret visions earned him a place in the Pharaoh's court, paving the way for his family's later settlement in Egypt. The Exodus and the Giving of the Torah, B. As centuries passed, the descendants of Israel became slaves in Egypt. They suffered greatly under the hand of later Pharaohs.
God in Judaism
Their flight from Egypt is known as the exodus. Where information comes directly from the Bible, I have provided citations. Moses Moses was the greatest prophet, leader and teacher that Judaism has ever known.
In fact, one of Rambam's 13 Principles of Faith is the belief that Moses' prophecies are true, and that he was the greatest of the prophets. Interestingly, the numerical value of "Moshe Rabbeinu" is He is described as the only person who ever knew G-d face-to-face Deut.
Amram married Yocheved, and she conceived, and she gave birth to Moses Ex. The only unusual thing about his birth is Yocheved's advanced age: Yocheved was born while Jacob and his family were entering Egypt, so she was when Moses was born.
His father named him Chaver, and his grandfather called him Avigdor, but he is known to history as Moses, a name given to him by Pharaoh's daughter. The name "Moses" comes from a root meaning "take out," because Moses was taken out of the river Ex. According to one Jewish source, Pharaoh's daughter actually named him Minios, which means "drawn out" in Egyptian, and the name Moshe Moses was a Hebrew translation of that name.
Moses was born in a very difficult time: Pharaoh had ordered that all male children born to the Hebrew slaves should be drowned in the river Ex.
God in Judaism - Wikipedia
Yocheved hid Moses for three months, and when she could no longer hide him, she put him in a little ark and placed it on the river where Pharaoh's daughter bathed Ex. Pharaoh's daughter found the child and had compassion on him Ex. Yocheved instilled in Moses a knowledge of his heritage and a love of his people that could not be erased by the 40 years he spent in the court of Pharaoh. Little is known about Moses's youth. The biblical narrative skips from his adoption by Pharaoh's daughter to his killing of an Egyptian taskmaster some 40 years later.
One traditional story tells that when he was a child, sitting on Pharaoh's knee, Moses took the crown off of Pharaoh's head and put it on. The court magicians took this as a bad sign and demanded that he be tested: If Moses took the gold, he would have to be killed.
An angel guided Moses's hand to the coal, and he put it into his mouth, leaving him with a life-long speech impediment Ex. Although Moses was raised by Egyptians, his compassion for his people was so great that he could not bear to see them beaten by Pharaoh's taskmasters.
One day, when Moses was about 40 years old, he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew slave, and he was so outraged that he struck and killed the Egyptian Ex. But when both his fellow Hebrews and the Pharaoh condemned him for this action, Moses was forced to flee from Egypt Ex.
He fled to Midian, where he met and married Zipporah, the daughter of a Midianite priest Ex. They had a son, Gershom Ex. Moses spent 40 years in Midian tending his father-in-law's sheep. A midrash tells that Moses was chosen to lead the Children of Israel because of his kindness to animals. When he was bringing the sheep to a river for water, one lamb did not come. Moses went to the little lamb and carried it to the water so it could drink. Like G-d, Moses cared about each individual in the group, and not just about the group as a whole.
This showed that he was a worthy shepherd for G-d's flock. Revelation G-d appeared to Moses and chose him to lead the people out of Egyptian slavery and to the Promised Land Ex.
With the help of his brother Aaron, Moses spoke to Pharaoh and triggered the plagues against Egypt Ex. He then led the people out of Egypt and across the sea to freedom, and brought them to Mount Sinai, where G-d gave the people the Torah and the people accepted it Ex.
During their journey, Moses, a strong leader, unified the Hebrew tribes under a jealous god, Yahweh, and a complex code of ethically based laws. According to the Torah -1st 5 books of the Tanakh, Moses climbed to the top of Mt.
Sinai and returned bearing the Ten Commandments -the set of moral laws revealed to him by the Hebrew God. The Hebrews wandered in the desert for years. G-d led them on a journey through the wilderness to Mount Sinai.
Here, G-d revealed Himself to the Children of Israel and offered them a great covenant: G-d revealed the Torah to his people, both the written and oral Torah, and the entire nation responded, "Everything that the L-rd has spoken, we will do! G-d revealed the entire Torah to Moses. It also includes all of the remaining prophecies and history that would later be written down in the remaining books of scripture, and the entire Oral Torah, the oral tradition for interpreting the Torah, that would later be written down in the Talmud.
Moses spent the rest of his life writing the first five books, essentially taking dictation from G-d. After Moses received instruction from G-d about the Law and how to interpret it, he came back down to the people and started hearing cases and judging them for the people, but this quickly became too much for one man.
Upon the advice of his father-in-law, Yitro, Moses instituted a judicial system Ex. Moses was not perfect. Like any man, he had his flaws and his moments of weakness, and the Bible faithfully records these shortcomings.
Judaism and Other Religions
In fact, Moses was not permitted to enter the Promised Land because of a transgression Deut. Moses was told to speak to a rock to get water from it, but instead he struck the rock repeatedly with a rod, showing improper anger and a lack of faith Num. Moses died in the yearjust before the people crossed over into the Promised Land Deut. Moses was years old at the time that he died Deut.
That lifespan is considered to be ideal, and has become proverbial: There is some dispute as to who physically wrote the last few verses of Deuteronomy: In any case, these verses, like everything else in the Torah, were written by G-d, and the actual identity of the transcriber is not important. As important as Moses was to the Children of Israel, it is always important to remember that Moses himself was not the deliverer or redeemer of Israel. It was G-d who redeemed Israel, not Moses.
Moses was merely G-d's prophet, His spokesman. The traditional text of the Pesach haggadah does not even mention Moses's name. In order to prevent people from idolatrously worshipping Moses, his grave was left unmarked Deut. Moses's position as leader of Israel was not hereditary. His son, Gershom, did not inherit the leadership of Israel. Salat - Prayer five times daily. Zakat - alms giving. Sawm - Fasting during the Holy month of Ramadan.
Hajj - Pilgrimage to the Holy city of Mecca. Rituals include the Circumcision of newly born Jewish males, Barmitzvah - a ceremony marking the 'coming of age' of Jewish Boys and observation of the Sabbath Shabat. As in the other faiths, prayer is important.
The Jewish prayer book is called the siddur. Sin We inherit a sinful nature through our common ancestor Adam, who rebelled against God. Jesus Christ atoned for our sins through his death on the Cross Romans 5: There is no concept of original sin, nor vicarious atonement.
All Humans are born sinless, but human weakness leads to sin. Judaism rejects the doctrine of original sin. Atonement for sins commited is made through seeking forgiveness from God in prayer and repentance. In addition, the day of atonement Yom Kippur is set aside specially for this purpose.
Salvation By grace through faith in Jesus Christ Ephesians 2: Through good works, prayers and the grace of God. There is no parallel to the Christian view of substitutionary atonement. The ultimate goal of all nature and history is an unending reign of cosmic intimacy with God, entailing universal justice and peace.
This arrangement is designated a covenant and is structured by an elaborate and intricate law. Thus, the Jewish people are both entitled to special privileges and burdened with special responsibilities from God. As the prophet Amos 8th century bce expressed it: The universal goal of the Jewish people has frequently expressed itself in messianism —the idea of a universal, political realm of justice and peace.
In one form or another, messianism has permeated Jewish thinking and action throughout the ages, and it has strongly influenced the outlook of many secular-minded Jews see also eschatology. Law embraces practically all domains of Jewish life, and it became the principle means by which Judaism was to bring about the reign of God on earth. It is a total guide to religious and ethical conduct, involving ritualistic observance as well as individual and social ethics.
It is a liturgical and ethical way constantly expatiated on by the prophets and priests, by rabbinic sages, and by philosophers. Such conduct was to be performed in the service of God, the transcendent and immanent ruler of the universe, the Creator and the propelling force of nature, and the one giving guidance and purpose to history. According to Judaic belief, this divine guidance is manifested through the history of the Jewish people, which will culminate in the messianic age.
Salo Wittmayer Baron Lou Hackett Silberman Periodization The division of the millennia of Jewish history into periods is a procedure frequently dependent on philosophical predilections. This formulation could be theologically reconciled with the assumption that Christianity had been preordained even before the creation of the world. In the 19th century, biblical scholars moved the decisive division back to the period of the Babylonian Exile and the restoration of the Jews to the kingdom of Judah 6th—5th century bce.
These theories, however, have been discarded by most scholars in the light of a more comprehensive knowledge of the ancient Middle East and the abandonment of a theory of gradual evolutionary development that was dominant at the beginning of the 20th century. Most Jews share a long-accepted notion that there never was a real break in continuity and that Mosaic-prophetic-priestly Judaism was continued, with only a few modifications, in the work of the Pharisaic and rabbinic sages well into the modern period.
Even today the various Jewish groups—whether OrthodoxConservativeor Reform —all claim direct spiritual descent from the Pharisees and the rabbinic sages. In fact, however, many developments have occurred within so-called normative or Rabbinic Judaism. In any event, the history of Judaism can be divided into the following major periods: Biblical Judaism 20th—4th century bce The ancient Middle Eastern setting The Bible depicts the family of the Hebrew patriarchs — AbrahamIsaacand Jacob all early 2nd millennium bce —as having its chief seat in the northern Mesopotamian town of Harranwhich then belonged to the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni.
From there Abraham, the founder of the Hebrew people, is said to have migrated to Canaan comprising roughly the region of modern Israel and Lebanonwhich was a vortex of west Asian, Egyptian, and east Mediterranean cultures throughout the biblical period and later ages. From Canaan the Hebrew ancestors of the people of Israel named after the patriarch Jacob, also called Israel migrated to Egypt, where they lived in servitude; a few generations later they returned to occupy part of Canaan.
The Hebrews were seminomadic herdsmen and occasionally farmers. Their tribal structure resembled that of the West Semitic steppe dwellers known from the 18th-century-bce tablets excavated at the north-central Mesopotamian city of Mari ; their family customs and law have parallels in the Old Babylonian and Hurro-Semite law of the early and middle 2nd millennium.
The conception of a messenger of God that underlies biblical prophecy was Amorite West Semitic and also found in the tablets at Mari. Mesopotamian religious and cultural conceptions are reflected in biblical cosmogony, primeval history including the Flood story in Genesis 6: Egypt provides many analogues for Hebrew hymnody and wisdom literature. All the cultures among which the patriarchs lived had cosmic gods who fashioned the world and preserved its order, all had a developed ethical system expressed in law and moral admonitionsand all had elaborate religious rites and myths.
Although plainer when compared with some of the learned literary creations of Mesopotamia, Canaan, and Egypt, the earliest biblical writings are so imbued with contemporary ancient Middle Eastern elements that the once-held assumption that Israelite religion began on a preliterate level must be rejected. Late-born amid high civilizations, the Israelite religion had from the start features characteristic of all the known religions of the area.
Implanted on the land bridge between Africa and Asia, it was exposed to crosscurrents of foreign thought throughout its history.
Abraham did not discover this God but entered into a new covenantal relationship with him, in which Abraham was promised the land of Canaan and numerous progeny. God fulfilled that promise, it is believed, through the actions of the Hebrew leader Moses 14th—13th century bce: Sinaiand brought them to the Promised Land. The Hebrew tradition itself, moreover, does not unanimously support even the more modest claim of the continuity of YHWH worship from Abraham to Moses.
This lack of continuity is demonstrated in Exodus 6: Neither of these epithets is used in postpatriarchal narratives excepting the Book of Ruth. Other compounds with El are unique to Genesis: Whether the name of YHWH was known to the patriarchs is doubtful. Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, oil painting by Titian, c. Their response is loyalty and obedience and observance of a cult i. Circumcision was a distinctive mark of the cult community.
Any flagrant contradictions between patriarchal and later mores have presumably been censored; yet distinctive features of the post-Mosaic religion are absent. Evidently not the same as the later religion of Israel, the patriarchal religion prepared the way for the later one through its familial basis, its personal call by the Deity, and its response of loyalty and obedience to him. Little can be said of the relation between the religion of the patriarchs and the religions of Canaan.
Known points of contact between them are the divine epithets mentioned above. Like the God of the fathers, Elthe head of the Ugaritic pantheon, was depicted as both a judgmental and a compassionate deity. Baal Lordthe aggressive young agricultural deity of Ugaritis remarkably absent from Genesis.
Yet the socioeconomic situation of the patriarchs was so different from the urban, mercantile, and monarchical background of the Ugaritic myths as to render any comparisons highly questionable. The schematic character of this tradition does not impair the historicity of a migration to Egypt, an enslavement by Egyptians, and an escape from Egypt under an inspired leader by some component of the later Israelite tribes.
To disallow these events, it can be argued, would make their centrality as articles of faith in the later religious beliefs of Israel inexplicable.
Tradition gives the following account of the birth of the nation. At the Exodus from Egypt 13th century bceYHWH showed his faithfulness and power by liberating the Israelites from bondage and punishing their oppressors with plagues and drowning them in the sea. At Sinai he made the Israelites his people and gave them the terms of his covenant, regulating their conduct toward him and each other so as to make them a holy nation.5 FAST FACTS Why the JEWS Rejected JESUS CHRIST as the MESSIAH !!!
After sustaining them miraculously during their year trek in the wilderness, he enabled them to take the land that he had promised to their fathers, the patriarchs. Moses leading the children of Israel through the Red Sea; illustration from a German Bible, 15th century.
He shapes the main institutions of Israel: Although Moses is compared to a prophet in various texts in the Pentateuch the first five books of the Biblehe is never designated as one—the term being evidently unsuited for so comprehensive and unique a figure. Mosaic religion The distinctive features of Israelite religion appear with Moses.
It is impossible to determine what rulings go back to Moses, but the Decalogue, or Ten Commandmentspresented in chapter 20 of Exodus and chapter 5 of Deuteronomyand the larger and smaller covenant codes in Exodus From them the following features may be noted: He painted the work in This meant eschewing all other gods—including idols venerated as such—and the elimination of all magical recourses.
The worship of YHWH was aniconic without images ; even figures that might serve in his worship were banned, apparently because their use suggested theurgy the art or technique of influencing or controlling a god by fixing his presence in a particular place and making him accessible. Although there is a mythological background behind some cultic terminology e. Adoration of the Golden Calf, oil on canvas by Nicolas Poussin, c. The involuntary perpetual slavery of Hebrews was abolished, and a seven-year limit was set on bondage.