Sanitation and Health
ENVIRONMENT, SANITATION AND HEALTH S.N. Uchegbu Department of Urban . guaranteeing easy circulation of traffic and good relationship between the. Water and Sanitation Related Diseases and the Environment: Challenges, relationship between sanitation, clean water supply and the environment to outline. This cross sectional study wants to analyze relationship between There is no significant relationship between environmental sanitation and helminthes status.
Study Session 1 Introduction to Sanitation and Waste Management
Flies and cockroaches are two examples of vectors that can carry pathogens from faeces on to food that is then eaten. There are other disease vectors linked to poor sanitation and waste management. For example, piles of food waste and other garbage not only provide good breeding sites for flies but they also encourage rats. Rats can contaminate food stores and also carry fleas. Poor personal hygiene also contributes to disease transmission.
Infrequent or inadequate washing of the body and clothes can encourage external body parasites such as fleas and lice, which may carry typhus. An important example of a disease that is closely related to poor sanitation but is not transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food or water is schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia.
Schistosomiasis is widely distributed in Ethiopia Dufera et al. The disease is caused by a parasitic worm that has a complicated life cycle. Its primary host is humans, but its secondary host is a type of freshwater snail. The disease is linked to poor sanitation because it is caused by the faecal contamination of water.
However, the worm gets into the body not by the faecal-oral route, but by penetrating through the skin when someone washes, swims or stands in water inhabited by infected snails. This study session concentrates on simple practices that can be carried out by everyone to reduce these risks. These practices generally relate to good hygiene, which means any practice that prevents the spread of disease-causing organisms or substances that cause harm to humans.
Washing should be done using clean water that has not been used by anyone else and with soap or a soap substitute such as ash. Ideally, the water should be hot. After washing, the hands should be dried using a clean cloth or allowed to dry in the air. This list is frequently summarised as five critical times, which are: If these diseases lead to diarrhoea or vomiting they are easily spread further if sanitation provision is poor. Food hygiene refers to practices and behaviours that can prevent contamination.
For example, food and water should be stored in the home in closed containers to prevent contact with flies, rodents and other vectors.
These containers should not be used for any other purpose and must be kept clean. Raw and cooked meats should not be stored together, and meat and dairy produce should be kept in a cool place, ideally in a refrigerator. Food should be prepared on clean surfaces and cooked at the correct temperature for the required time. Particular care should be taken over meat, poultry, fish and dairy produce. Storing wastes properly is also an important way of controlling vectors.
Food waste should be disposed of immediately or stored in a closed container before disposal to discourage the presence of flies, etc. Household solid waste storage containers should be emptied frequently.
If the waste is disposed of in a pit it should be covered with soil immediately. Waste management can also play a part in controlling mosquitoes. Mosquitoes need water to breed, but they can also do this successfully in very small temporary puddles of rainwater.
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Plastic bags and other plastic waste that is carelessly discarded can hold enough water to enable mosquitoes to reproduce. Collecting and disposing of plastic correctly by burial or burning ensures this opportunity for mosquito breeding is removed.
According to the F diagram Figure 2. The three barriers in the F diagram are sanitation using a latrinesafe water supply and good hygiene, specifically handwashing. The first two are effective barriers to some of the steps in disease transmission, but hygiene cuts across all the lines of transmission.
If the person who is the potential new host washes their hands at all critical times, this will be the single most effective method of preventing infection. You have seen how poor sanitation and waste management can contribute to the spread of many different communicable diseases.
The following sections describe how these negative effects on health can have further impacts on education and the economy. Long-term malnutrition retards children's physical and intellectual development. Children are frequently ill as a result of parasites and other infections, which leads to poor school attendance and performance.
Study Session 2 The Effects of Poor Sanitation and Waste Management
Furthermore, if the school attended by an infected child does not have good sanitation and handwashing facilities the infections are likely to spread to healthy children. There are also social impacts of poor sanitation provision in schools. An absence of latrines with separate facilities for girls and boys means that post-pubescent girls are more likely to stop attending schools, especially when menstruating this is covered in Study Session When healthy children attend a school with well segregated sanitation facilities, they are present more regularly and are better learners.
This, in turn, makes them better able to find jobs that demand higher-level skills on finishing school; an advantage to them, their families and the community as a whole. This contributes to wider economic benefits, as discussed in the following section. If people are healthy they will spend less money on health care and the loss of work days due to diarrhoea and other related infections is reduced.
Illness can affect both the sick person and their family, for example when women have to take time off work to care for sick children. Improving solid waste management has economic advantages in addition to the health advantages discussed above.
Consider the following example. It is said that a firm that throws something away pays towards it three times over.
Study Session 1 Introduction to Sanitation and Waste Management: View as single page
Imagine a firm that uses raw materials and puts them through a manufacturing process to make a final product. First, the firm has to pay its suppliers for the raw materials. Secondly, it pays its staff to transform the raw materials into products, and pays for the water and energy that it uses. Finally, the firm has to pay for disposal of what it throws away.
So a firm that reduces the amount of waste it produces makes savings in all three areas. A firm that uses basic materials such as glass or metal faces large energy bills for the processes required in converting these materials into products. But if they follow the principles of the 3 Rs reduce, reuse and recycle and substitute some of their input raw material with scrap glass or metal, they can reduce their energy bills and buy less raw materials.
There are further benefits from recycling. The initial stages in the recycling process collecting material from households and businesses is labour-intensive and provides employment for the poorest people in society. A householder in an urban area goes shopping for food.
Contributed to the writing of the paper: The article was jointly written by all the named authors. The Policy Forum allows health policy makers around the world to discuss challenges and opportunities for improving health care in their societies.Science Video for Kids: How to Care for the Environment
Copyright Mara et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Text S1: In the past, government agencies have typically built sanitation infrastructure, but sanitation professionals are now concentrating on helping people to improve their own sanitation and to change their behaviour.
Improved sanitation has significant impacts not only on health, but on social and economic development, particularly in developing countries.
The health sector has a strong role to play in improving sanitation in developing countries through policy development and the implementation of sanitation programmes. This is one article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation. Introduction and Definitions Adequate sanitation, together with good hygiene and safe water, are fundamental to good health and to social and economic development.