German Romanticism and Nationalism | Guided History
Romanticism was an intellectual movement that developed among German thinkers during the time of the Napoleonic conquest of Europe (), and it. Romanticism & Nationalism. John Filo. Period 4. AP Euro. Prompt. Analyze three examples of the relationship between Romanticism and nationalism before. A consideration of the relationship between Romanticism and national consciousness .. as the case may be, the relationship between nation and ' nationalism.
His article provides the non-German speaking reader a look into German literature and how it had such a large impact on German nationalism. Many of their tales derive from older folk tales and many of the characters show traits of the national character.
Romantic nationalism - Wikipedia
The widespread distribution of these stories with the multiple translations greatly contributed to German Nationalism. Writers such as Jean Paul, Goethe, E. Hoffman, and Schlegel influenced each of these composers alike and many composed pieces using their texts. Again, this acts as a useful tool to the non-German speaker in discovering how German literature and music enforced nationalism.
The English translation of the text shows an idea of unity, brotherhood, and harmony but not specifically among Germans.
However, one cannot look past the fact that this was the first time a symphony had text, and that this text in German dominates the last movement as the chorus sings it out. Whether Beethoven intended for this to promote German Nationalism or not, it has become a piece that people have used in political contexts and was played often during the third reich.
Grimm, Wilhelm, and Jacob Grimm. They are still read and admired today by adults and children alike, and have been republished and adapted to other media including television, movies, etc.
Evil tricks threaten us; if the German people and kingdom should one day decay, under a false, foreign rule, soon no prince would understand his people; and foreign mists with foreign vanities they would plant in our German land; what is German and true none would know, if it did not live in the honour of German Masters.
Therefore I say to you: And if you favour their endeavours, even if the Holy Roman Empire should dissolve in mist, for us there would yet remain holy German Art! His opera Die Meistersinger, with its first performance inshows particular nationalist character. Wagner clearly promotes German identity, unlike Beethoven 44 years before who did this much more subtly.
It encourages nationalism and pride in the political system. Compared to French Romantic music which is much more flowy, German Romantic music can be much more abrupt, similar to the two respective languages.
If one listens to just the accompaniment of these vocal pieces, one will find how much they reflect the language. Cambridge University Press, One can look at Romantic poetry originally in English such as Wordsworth to understand the idea of Romanticism better in the broader context not just in Germany.
Wordsworth included several enjambments and lack of rhyme in his poetry, going against the previous formal conventions; this placement of emotion over form was a very romantic idea and was used in Romanticism throughout the continent.
A translation cannot provide anywhere near the beauty that a poem achieves, because sounds and aesthetics became important. However, knowing the German language can really allow one to the poems of the Romantic area in the above anthology. In this phase, basic linguistic norms were sought and formulated and historical contexts were traced; in short, the potential nation was defined in a scholarly fashion according to the individual features that distinguished it from other groups.
The Enlightenment scholars did not, however, necessarily come from the ranks of the ethnie for which they had sympathy and in which they took an interest. Very often, researchers so identified with their subject of inquiry that they assumed an emotional relationship to them.
Among the national movements that experienced this phase later, in the course of the nineteenth century, we know of cases when, by contrast, the emotional relationship to the nation or, more precisely, the ethnie, became the motivation to do scholarly work. Blood ties, however, were not decisive: The leading actors of the national movement, in the proper sense of the word, resolved to sell their fellow citizens, members of their ethnic group, on this idea.
The phase of national agitation began, of resolute efforts to convince members of the potential nation that their national identity should be a source of pride. The nation was meant to become the basic security that they could turn to for protection, but also an obligation, a group for which it was necessary to work, whose members it was necessary not only to identify with but also, indeed mainly, to be in solidarity with.
Some of his ideas, however, would later be in accord with the approach of the Romantics, and would serve to strengthen their arguments. Let us consider several examples. Certainly, the enthusiasm of Josef Jungmann — for the Czech language and its spreading may reasonably be considered a reflection of Romantic influences, even though inspired by the pre-Romantic Herder.
We encounter conspicuously Romantic approaches not only in the phase of national agitation, but also, much later, in the third phase of the national movement, which is distinguished by the modern nation already being fully established and national identity achieving mass acceptance. The cult of language, the Romantic idealization of the past, and the cult of the common people were stereotypes that accompanied the national movement also to the time when it was fully formed and national existence was assured—not infrequently in the form of the nation-state.
The approaches we characterize as Romantic had, to be sure, their own special place in the forming of the nation. In order to determine their role we must, however, ask what roads the processes of forming the modern nation actually took. Not till the period between the two world wars did it begin to be used—actually only in the United States—as an instrument of scholarly historical analysis.
Thus, for example, in the period between the two world wars Carlton J. Hayes — differentiated between six types of nationalism including Liberal, Jacobin, and integral. Hans Kohn —writing later, was satisfied with two: In other words, the nation is presented as the product of nationalism. Causality is merely shifted onto another level: To be more specific: Was it perhaps a matter of how enthusiastically the individual propagandists made their speeches and how devotedly they worked?
The role of Romanticism— providing that we mean by it increased emotionality, the search for new security, and growing subjectivization—was manifested rather in verbalization and stylization, which functioned as commentary or catalyst. Yet it was not only a matter of commentary and an approach to objective processes, but also one of the articulation and form that the rationalization of these activities and efforts assumed, which aimed at the mobilization of the masses of the nation.
Despite the differences of opinion, which are intensified by an attempt to come up with ever new, more inventive solutions, there is a certain, albeit not always admitted consensus: Every nation, every national movement, sought and found a certain temporal dimension in its existence, or, more precisely, an historical dimension of the life of its members.
The past was presented by the national movement at two levels, which cannot be placed in opposition to each other: At this second level, the level of collective memory and the creation of national myths, Romanticism could to a certain extent also be employed.
The nation-forming processes usually had their own linguistic and ethnic component, whether a vernacular, which sought the road to codification, or the rationalistic linguistic unification of state territory. Linguistic homogenization was anyway a process that ran in parallel with the formation of modern nations, where both processes often penetrated each other and also clashed.
Here, as well, we must differentiate between two levels: The cult of folk customs and folk art, which is usually linked with Romanticism, was often strikingly employed here. The formation of nations proceeded roughly in parallel with the processes of modernization, which, however, cannot be reduced to industrialization, as Gellner would have it.
The changes brought on by modernization, therefore, include increasing social mobility and migration, as well as the introduction of rational administration, universal education, and the expansion of communications. Without a certain level of education among the public, without a certain level of social communication, any national propaganda was doomed to failure. Here lies the boundary that even the most enthusiastic Romantic could not break through. National agitation, the national idea, could only be comprehensible to the masses and acceptable to them if it corresponded to some extent with their everyday experience: In short, the generally recognized factors of national mobilization include the existence of nationally relevant conflicts of interest.
By those I mean the kinds of conflicts where the groups clashing are differentiated not only by their interests but also by their language, ethnicity, or nationality. It could be, say, a conflict between a peasant whose mother tongue was Estonian or Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Slovenian and a German or Polish-speaking landowner, or a conflict between ethnically different groups of officials over posts in the civil service.
Ultimately, the struggle for political power among the politicians of various nationalities was also of this nature. Socio-psychological factors, which aimed at the feelings of people, were employed in national agitation, and could, under certain circumstances and over a certain period, become the domain of the Romantics.
This is true of national celebrations, funerals of important people, and public protests. Here, however, one must also take into account manipulation, the cool calculating use of emotional elements in education for nationhood. One must bear in mind, however, that this emotional form of national movement and national aims could be effective only on the assumption that the individual movements had already reached a mass level, that is to say, when there was no longer any doubt about the successful culmination of the nation-building process.
An interpretation of an historical transformation process as complex as the formation of the modern nation which considers only a single cause, must be consigned to the realm of wishful thinking. Certainly, we come across expressions that can clearly be classed under Romanticism disregarding the fact that the term is used with different accents for different cultures. Mostly, however, the approaches of the propagandists at the inception of the national movement and also of those during its mass phase are marked by a combination of rational and emotive arguments, a combination of idealistic declarations and pragmatic politics, and also by personal engagement.
Without wanting to contrive a primitive direct link between the social standing of an author and his ideas, we would argue that it is clear that a national movement whose leaders come mainly from the ranks of the aristocracy will, in its forms and demands, be different from a national movement whose leaders are connected chiefly with the farmers or pen-pushers.
It would, of course, be interesting to analyze the relationship between the social composition, or social bases of the leaders of the national movement, and the proportion of Romantic feeling and arguments in their propaganda. Who were the texts addressed to, who were the readers of the texts that we have before us? Here it will again be useful to differentiate between a once-existing audience the actual initial readers of these texts on the one hand, and the intended audience those whom the author considered to be his audience, who imagined them as his national public on the other.
The fundamental character trait of the patriot was, understandably, devotion to the nation, to the country, a willingness to sacrifice oneself for the nation, that is to say, for the members of that nation. Devotion to supra-personal national values and interests was of course contingent on a certain amount of knowledge: In relation to this definition two questions arise: Was it not, after all, the Romantic heroes who sacrificed themselves for their nation in Poland, Hungary, or Bulgaria?