The Colonies Under British Rule
No Taxation Without Representation. A comprehensive list of Acts on Colonial America that lead to the American Revolutionary War. system, these acts required trade to be done in English or colonial ships. ○ Certain enumerated items could only be traded with England. ○ European goods. But there is another and very relevant way of looking at the relationship By the end of the colonial era in North America, conomic exchanges While religious diversity existed from the beginning of British colonization, the vast Chart of the three colonial regions showing differences in economic, social,religious, and.
Americans, on the other hand insisted on direct representation -- electing their own reprsentatives to their own assemblies. Read Grenville's Defense Townshend Acts, A year later, it tried to raise revenue through new duties on paper, glass, and tea. If that's how colonists preferred to give money to the Crown, the King's new minister, Charles Townshend, argued, let them have their way. But now a series of newspaper essays entitled "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" urged the colonists to resist.
They were, in fact, written by a mild-mannered lawyer named John Dickinson, a man of property with Quaker connections who was dead set against violence. Duties meant to raise revenue were taxes, he said, and so every bit as dangerous as the Stamp Act.
What's more, those duties were part of Townshend's attempt to weaken the colonial assemblies. For proceeds from the duties would be used to pay the salaries of royal governors, customs collectors who were often little more than racketeers who extorted money from merchants and shop keepersand colonial judges, thus giving them far more independence from the colonial assembles. Dickinson's "Farmers' Letters" were copied from one newspaper to another. And everywhere the colonists said he had expressed their position perfectly.
They also followed his advice and cut back imports. They established "committees of inspection" to enforce the ban on trade with Great Britain. The committees publicly denounced merchants who continued to import, vandalized their warehouses, forced them to stand under the gallows, and sometimes resorted to tar and feathers.
Afterthe resistance also brought a broader range of colonials into the politics of protest. Artisans who recognized that non-importation would spur domestic manufacturing began to organize as independent political groups.
In many towns women took an active part in opposing the Townshend Duties. The "Daughters of Liberty" took to heart John Dickinson's advice: Free blacks also took part in the resistance.
One of the men killed in the Boston Massacre which will be described shortly was a free black man: Again, Parliament gave in. On March 5,the day of the so-called "Boston Massacre," it repealed all the new duties, except the one on tea.
The Boston Massacre By then, however, many colonists' old confidence in the British government had been shaken. Taxes were not the only reason.
Inthe Crown had sent two regiments of troops to Boston to support royal officials there whose customs commissioners had sparked riots when they seized John Hancock's sloop, the Liberty, on trumped up charges. Bostonians said the troops were unnecessary and, like all Englishmen, distrusted governments that used "standing armies" against their own people.
Free men, they said, are not governed at the point of a gun. It seemed as if the soldiers and civilians were always scuffling with each other. Finally, on March 5,a contingent of troops fired into a crowd, killing five people. Paul Revere, a local silversmith and patriot, memorialized the "Boston Massacre" with one of the most famous prints of the era.
It shows redcoats willfully shooting unarmed civilians.
The relationship between Great Britain and the american colo by Anthony Bell on Prezi
Another smoking gun protrudes from a window behind the soldiers, in a building labeled "Butcher's Hall. Nowhere to be seen are the snowballs, some with rocks inside, that crowd members threw at the soldiers. Nor is there any indication that Bostonians provoked the soldiers by shouting "fire! The print, in short, gave only one side of the story.
Patriot John Adams defended Captain Prescott and his men and was able to secure an acquittal for the Captain and most of the soldiers. Two of the soldiers were branded on the thumb as punishment.
But with Parliament's revocation of all of the duties except that on tea and with the removal of British troops from the streets of Boston to Castle William in the harbor things settled down to a semblance of normality.
The Boston Tea Party Inhowever, trouble began again after Parliament tried to help the East India Company sell tea in the colonies at a price lower than that of smuggled tea. Because it was sold directly to customers, the tea, even with the still-existing tax, was cheaper than before. Colonists saw this "poisoned cheap tea" as an attempt by Parliament to lure them into accepting Parliament's right to tax them -- to raise a revenue, as the colonists said. They also objected to Parliament's actions in wiping out a whole class of American merchants.
British Acts on Colonial America
Again they resisted, but in as peaceful a manner as they could. Colonists in New York and Philadelphia, for example, convinced the captains of tea ships to turn around and take their cargoes back to England without paying the tea tax. In Boston, however, the tea ships entered the harbor before the opposition organized. Townsmen spent the next twenty days trying without success to get clearances so the ships could go back to sea.
Governor Thomas Hutchinson, however, insisted that the tea would not be sent back -- that the law would be enforced. Then, on the night before the tea could be seized by the customs service, a group of men disguised as Indians boarded the ships and emptied chests of tea into the water.
The proceedings were amazingly quiet except for the "ploop, ploop, ploop" of tea dropping into the sea. A young lawyer from the town of Braintree named John Adams, an obscure cousin of the better- known Boston leader, Samuel Adams, and by no means a lover of mobs, found the event "magnificent. For the first time also the King became involved, viewing the actions of the Bostonians as rebellious. Then Britain put Massachusetts under military rule, appointing General Thomas Gage as royal governor and sending troops to enforce his authority.
From there on, the crisis got worse without respite.
This measure dropped the boundary of Quebec down to the Ohio River, thus depriving Americans, such as the investors in the Ohio Company, who included George Washington and Ben Franklin, of the opportunity to develop lands that they thought they owned in the Ohio country.
The Quebec Act also recognized the Catholic Church as the official church in Quebec, and designated French civil law as the law system for the province.
French civil law did not provide for a representative assembly and many colonists viewed the Catholic Church and its Pope as the spawn of Satan -- the "whore of Babylon spoken about in the Book of Revelations in the Bible.
The first of the Navigation Acts existed for almost two centuries and was repealed in The laws were designed to protect British economic interests in colonial trade and to protect its industry against the rapidly growing Dutch navigation trade. It was not designed to raise revenue but it was used as a trade barrier. The duty was set at 6p per gallon of imported foreign molasses, corruption became endemic and illegal trade was widespread. Not until was the collection of the duty enforced when the duty was lowered to 2d a gallon and in it was replaced by the Sugar Act.
Parliament decided to enact the Currency Act of to control currency depreciation against silver and sterling and to ensure its value for payments of debt to British merchants. A subsequent Currency Act enacted in extended the policy to all British colonies in the Americas increasing more tension between Britain and America.
The Act increased the duty of molasses from 2d to 3d of gallon of imported molasses. It enforced the Navigation Acts by prohibiting vessels to directly transport cargo to the colonies. Vessels had to unload its cargo in Britain, pay duties and reload its cargo before sailing to the colonies.
It added hides, skins, potash and other products to the list of commodities that could be legally exported. The act was strictly enforced through the Vice-Admiralty Courts.
Violators were to be prosecuted in the vice-admiralty courts. For the first time the British had levied an explicit tax on the colonist for the purpose of raising revenue, previous taxes were seen as trade taxes and tolerated by colonial residents.