Is there a relationship between fast food and obesity

Fast Food and Obesity – The Cause and Effect Relationship | Pathway Genomics

is there a relationship between fast food and obesity

This article focuses on the hypothesized link between obesity and fast food employment by examining data on all states over – and. Recent research has discovered links between the consumption of fast food and allergies, and also a link between allergies and obesity. The researchers investigated the relationship between densities of full service and fast food restaurants and the prevalence of obesity in the.

Fraser Crawford Table 3: Summary of associations between the fast food environment and rates of obesity in non- us studies. Further categorization of included studies Fast food access studies categorized by country: One of the 46 studies included in the final review, 34 studies were conducted in the US, three studies were performed in the United Kingdom, three studies were performed in Canada, one study was performed in Taiwan, one study was performed in Australia, one study was performed in China, and one study was performed in Germany.

High densities of fast food restaurants are not associated with high levels of obesity

Two studies examined multiple countries simultaneously: One study examined 26 countries at once [ 20 - 26 ], and another study [ 27 - 30 ] examined three countries simultaneously US, Scotland and Canada. Populations studied and outcomes measured in included studies Included studies differed in terms of the populations they examined.

Finally, the remainder of studies either did not mention the specific ages of their study populations or studied some combination of both children and adults. A total of five studies in the US studied the food environment specifically around schools, a total of three studies outside the US studied the food environment around schools, and one study [ 30 - 35 ] compared the effects of the food environment around schools in US, Canada, and Scotland.

is there a relationship between fast food and obesity

Included studies were relatively similar in terms of the outcomes they measured; almost all the included studies obtained height and weight measures to calculate the BMI of the study population and used the BMIs to find the rate of obesity.

Several studies studied outcomes in addition to BMI, such as dietary behaviour and psychosocial profiles.

is there a relationship between fast food and obesity

Although nearly all the included studies used BMI to measure the outcomes of the population, the included studies were split in terms of how they obtained height and weight measurements. Fast food access studies categorized by geographic location and scale A majority of studies included in this review were performed in urban locations or were performed in both urban and rural locations.

Only one study was performed solely in a rural location; this study was conducted in rural China [ 21 ]. The scale of the included studies varied significantly, ranging from studies performed on entire countries [ 20 ] to studies examining Metropolitan Statistical Areas MSA to studies examining individual cities and neighbourhoods [ 42 - 47 ]. The most commonly used scale in the included studies were the county level or a similar measure, such as MSA and the city level.

Fast Food and Obesity – The Cause and Effect Relationship

Characterization of the fast food environment The included studies also differed significantly in the way the fast food environment was characterized. Two included studies did not explicitly mention a definition for fast food restaurants [ 204352 - 54 ].

is there a relationship between fast food and obesity

These studies categorized restaurants as fast food restaurants based on characteristics such as the type of utensils offered, whether a customer receives their food before or after they pay, and the type of foods served.

Studies performed outside the US displayed an even greater heterogeneity in the definitions of fast food utilized. To describe the fast food environment, several different methodologies were used; the most commonly utilized methods included densities, proximities, ratios, and indexes used to characterize the food environment.

There was some variability, however, within the density measurements; some studies calculated the number of fast food restaurants within a circular buffer of fixed distances around a reference point such as a residential location or schoolwhile other studies calculated the relative prevalence of fast food restaurants by finding the number of fast food restaurants per fixed unit of population.

Finally, only two studies utilized a ratio measure to characterize the food environment; these studies characterized the food environment based on ratios of fast food restaurants to other types of restaurants.

A total of three studies [ 252650 ] characterized the fast food environment based on both density and proximity measures.

is there a relationship between fast food and obesity

Several studies further described the food environment by incorporating measures of food outlets other than fast food restaurants. The most commonly included food outlets were full-service restaurants, convenience stores, grocery stores, supermarkets, outdoor food stalls, and cafes.

is there a relationship between fast food and obesity

Several studies [ 164950525455 ] also examined the built environment beyond solely food, studying factors like street connectivity, number of bicycle paths, and the number of subway stations. Associations found between the fast food environment and obesity: Obesity has taken the shape of an epidemic in the USA and is leading to major health complications such as premature deaths and illnesses like heart diseases, diabetes, fatty liver, arthritis, gall bladder diseases and joint disorders.

You must have heard that one of the leading causes of obesity is junk food. Junk food and obesity are considered to go hand in hand. Let us take a look at this cause and effect relationship between junk food and obesity. Obesity and Calorie Intake Increase in calorie intake and inadequate physical activity are the leading factors of obesity.

  • 15-year study shows strong link between fast food, obesity and insulin resistance
  • How does junk food contribute to our obesity epidemic?

According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the intake of calories in the US population is increasing every passing year. The numbers have risen alarmingly in the past decade.

High densities of fast food restaurants are not associated with high levels of obesity

There are four basic reasons why fast food is linked to obesity. Unhealthy Ingredients Most of the fast food contains a large amount of sugar, fats and carbs and less minerals and vitamins.

This means that you are taking in large amount of unhealthy calories in the shape of fast food which leads to weight gain and ultimately obesity. Most of the fast foods have exceeding levels of sugar and fats which are directly associated with increasing weight.