In this research we investigate the relationships between wind speed and temperature time series data in Bangkok, Thailand, from the time interval of January. It is found (a) that in a large majority of cases the relation between temperatures and wind directions is direct and appreciable, south component winds being. Relationship between wind direction and air temperature in the. Osaka center . Because the wind speed dropped below the 2 m/s, the wind direction during.
This model indicates that when there is no wind present, the atmospheric pressure is approximately With a standard error of 9.
As proof on concept, we will estimate this same relationship using Wooten's augmented matrix and compare the results. The alternative model is: Modeling done using standard multiple-regression can also be done using augmented matrices.
This gives a scaled model in terms of pressure as a function of wind speed of as shown in Fig. The apparent differences are due to the fact that the data used to calibrate both models where recorded under hurricane conditions and therefore standard atmospheric pressure is extrapolated information.
First we will test the relationship between wind speed and pressure assuming interaction and then with the full second order model. Consider the augmented model including interaction without second order terms: Using the developed non-response analysis, we have to be: This gives a scaled model in terms of the smallest coefficient of Where the parameter estimates are given in Table 3. The parameter estimates are given in Table 3 ; with Solving for pressure we have: As indicated in Fig. However, there is a smaller standard error, this is an indication of higher order terms in at least one of the principle factors to explain the curvature seen in the residuals Fig.
Full second order model: Consider the augmented model: Scatter plot of pressure versus wind speed including developed model including interaction Using this non-response analysis, we have to be: Residual plot of a pressure and b wind speed Solving for pressure we have: The apparent reason for the two solutions is that pressures relationship to wind speed is indirectly related by temperature and volume and therefore, the pressure would be different before, during and after a storm.
The Relationships between Wind Speed and Temperature Time Series in Bangkok, Thailand. - IOPscience
Scatter plot of pressure versus wind speed including developed model including higher order terms and interaction This is seen in the estimates when we let: This is an indication that there are lurking variables, either volume not measured or temperatures not provided in this data set are related to pressure and wind speed.
This breakdown is consistent with the Wooten and Tsokos b scale, that around 80 knots there is a shift in pressure differentials and the start of hurricane category 2 in this newly defined scale. Scatter plot of pressure versus wind speed a before the storm and b after the storm Table 4: Standard scores for wind speedpressure, temperatures atmospheric, water and dew point for a the original data and b for the day moving average In the Saffir-Simpson scale, this shift occurs at 85 knots.
As these values vary from hour to hour and have daily and yearly patterns, Fig. To compare these measures near the surface to those measured within a hurricane; consider the non-response model given in Eq. Using this non-response analysis and the raw data, we have to be: Solving for pressure in terms of wind speedwe have Hence, solving for pressure as it has been done in the previous analysis, Eq.
However, as the wind speed increase, this estimate has increase variance. Figure 8 indicates that there is more to the relationship between pressure and wind speed near the surface of the water in the Gulf of Mexico.
This is seen in that the estimates for pressure are only accurate during the summer months when temperatures are higher. However, in the winter months, the developed model does not accurate estimate the observed pressure.
This is due to the affects of temperature. By the ideal gas law, pressure and volume are directly related to temperature, but under the assumption that pressure is constant, by Charles Law Pidwirny,here the ratio of volume to temperature is constant. Therefore, during the summer months when pressures appear to be constant, temperature should explain the interaction between pressure and volumes. To compare the behavior of each of the various temperatures and related volumes by scaling the data as follows: Among the variables given, pressure appears to be most constant; in addition, the behaviors of the three temperature readings are very similar.
This is seen in Fig.
The Relationships between Wind Speed and Temperature Time Series in Bangkok, Thailand.
When compared to the other variables, temperature appears to relate inversely; when temperatures rise, pressure and wind speed compensate for the moving volumes of air. This measure is also an indication of the constant nature of the variable itself. Consider the sums of square error for the variable P: Hence, internal to the variable, the coefficient of determination is the percent of total sums of squares explained by the mean and is given by: As and therefore P is approximately a constant and as and therefore P is extremely variant.
Table 5 gives the analysis of the constant nature of the variable pressure. The estimate of the mean reciprocal is 0. The point estimates using the standard sample mean are lower compared to the point estimates found using Wooten's Augmented Matrix as this alternative method uses the variance in the data to estimate the population mean.
Summary output for non-response analysis of means for pressure, P Table 6: Summary Output for comparison of non-response analysis by variable: Correlation Matrix between variables: In fact, wind direction is one of the first things a meteorologist looks at when forecasting the weather. For us in the Northeast, our temperatures change the most if wind blows off the Atlantic, down from Canada or up from the Gulf of Mexico. Let's investigate each of these directions and its affect on temperatures in the Northeast.
While shorter daylight hours in the winter help lead to colder temperatures, northerly winds only enhance the frigid feel. As a result, winds blowing over the deep Canadian snow pack become even colder and often keep these chilly characteristics traveling even further south into our neck of the woods.
Let's head back to the beach and, more importantly, the Atlantic Ocean. Just like land, the ocean heats up during the summer and cools down in the winter.
How does the Wind Impact Temperatures? | WeatherWorks
However, it does so at a slower pace. As a result, the ocean often stays cool into June and warm into October. Therefore, easterly winds, mainly during the transition months, usually bring in temperatures similar to that over the ocean which can be much different than inland. This leads to chilly spring or early summer temperatures with highs only in the 50s or mild autumn temperatures in the 70s.