India election: World's biggest voting event explained - BBC News
In the United Kingdom, in particular, as voter turnout rates have declined, . compulsory voting, a position that has garnered recent attention in the Indian media. Consistent with this explanation, I find that the relationship between ideological divergence and turnout is driven primarily by the demobilization. YouGov conducts one of Britain's biggest ever post-election surveys to Despite an increase in in youth turnout, young people are still noticeably less likely to vote Part of this relationship is down to age – the expansion of education Germany · Hong Kong · India · Indonesia · Italy · Malaysia · Mexico.
The register was compiled in October, and would come into force the next February, and would remain valid until the next January.
The electoral register would become progressively more out of date during its period of validity, as electors moved or died also people studying or working away from home often had difficulty voting. This meant that elections taking place later in the year tended to have lower turnouts than those earlier in the year. The introduction of rolling registration where the register is updated monthly has reduced but not entirely eliminated this issue since the process of amending the register is not automatic, and some individuals do not join the electoral register until the annual October compilation process.
Another country with a highly efficient registration process is France. At the age of eighteen, all youth are automatically registered.
Beyond Turnout: The Consequences of Compulsory Voting | The Political Studies Association (PSA)
Only new residents and citizens who have moved are responsible for bearing the costs and inconvenience of updating their registration. Similarly, in Nordic countriesall citizens and residents are included in the official population register, which is simultaneously a tax list, voter registration, and membership in the universal health system.
Residents are required by law to report any change of address to register within a short time after moving. This is also the system in Germany but without the membership in the health system. The elimination of registration as a separate bureaucratic step can result in higher voter turnout.
This is reflected in statistics from the United States Bureau of Census, — States that have same day registration, or no registration requirements, have a higher voter turnout than the national average.
At the time of that report, the four states that allowed election day registration were Minnesota, Wisconsin, Maine, and Oregon. Since then, Idaho and Maine have changed to allow same day registration.
North Dakota is the only state that requires no registration. If a Bolivian voter fails to participate in an election, the citizen may be denied withdrawal of their salary from the bank for three months. When enforced, compulsion has a dramatic effect on turnout.
Elections in the United Kingdom - Wikipedia
In Venezuela and the Netherlands compulsory voting has been rescinded, resulting in substantial decreases in turnout. In Greece voting is compulsory, however there are practically no sanctions for those who do not vote. In Luxembourg voting is compulsory, too, but not strongly enforced.
In Luxembourg only voters below the age of 75 and those who are not physically handicapped or chronically ill have the legal obligation to vote.
In Belgium attendance is required and absence is punishable by law. Sanctions for non-voting behaviour were foreseen sometimes even in absence of a formal requirement to vote.
In Italy the Constitution describes voting as a duty art. From tothus, the Italian electoral law included light sanctions for non-voters lists of non-voters were posted at polling stations.
Salience[ edit ] Mark N. Franklin argues that salience, the perceived effect that an individual vote will have on how the country is run, has a significant effect on turnout. He presents Switzerland as an example of a nation with low salience. The selection will always involve a "one member, one vote" ballot where all members of the CLP are entitled to select their candidate from a shortlist. The methods used to draw up the shortlist will vary according to the structure of the CLP, the time available before the election, and the number of candidates who express an interest in the selection.
All selected candidates must attend and pass an interview conducted on behalf of the NEC - most candidates will do this before starting to apply for selections, though the interview can occur after a candidate is selected.
Different procedures apply when a sitting Labour MP indicates they wish to stand for re-selection. On very rare occasions, the NEC may withdraw their endorsement of a candidate including sitting MPs after the selection process is complete. They exercised this power with regards to some of the MPs involved in the expenses scandal prior to the General Election. Once on the list, candidates are free to apply for selection in any constituency.
The candidate in each seat is selected by local party members following a hustings. Applicants are not shortlisted, so local parties vote directly on the full list of applicants. Because the franchise between electors varies for example, EU citizens who are not Commonwealth or Irish citizens cannot vote in UK parliamentary elections ballot papers are only issued after checking the marker in the electoral register before an elector's name to identify in which elections the individual is eligible to vote.
Votes can be cast either in person at a polling station, by post or by proxy. British citizens residing abroad and registered as overseas electors cannot vote at British high commissions, embassies or consulates - their votes can only be cast either in person in the constituency where they are enrolled in the United Kingdom, by proxy who must reside in and be eligible to vote in the UK or by post although this option is less popular as postal ballot packs are only despatched by returning officers at 4pm, 19 working days before polling day at the earliest and must be received by the returning officer by the close of poll to be counted.
On a separate list called the corresponding number list the presiding officer or poll clerk writes the voter's elector number next to the unique identifying number of the ballot paper issued. However, the secrecy of the vote is usually maintained, as at the close of the poll this list linking voters to their ballot paper numbers is sealed inside a packet which may only be opened by the order of a court in the event that the election result is challenged.
Voter Turnout Database
The ballot paper is folded and then handed to the voter. The voter marks the ballot papers in the privacy of a voting booth. Polling stations must provide a writing implement for voters; usually pencils are provided for practical reasons, as ink pens may dry out or spillbut there is no legal requirement for voters to mark their ballot papers with a pencil they can use their own pen instead.
Before placing the ballot papers in the ballot boxthe voter has in theory to show the presiding officer or the poll clerk the official mark and the unique identifying number printed on the reverse of the ballot papers.
If a voter requests a ballot paper but someone has already voted in their name, or they are listed as having requested a postal vote, they can only cast a tendered ballot. After marking the tendered ballot in private, the voter must not place it in the ballot box.
Instead, it must be returned to the presiding officer who will endorse it with the voter's name, elector number and polling district reference, before placing it in a special envelope.
- Elections in the United Kingdom
- Beyond Turnout: The Consequences of Compulsory Voting
- India election: World's biggest voting event explained
The voter's name and elector number is then written down in the 'List of Tendered Votes'. Although tendered ballots are not included at the count, they serve as a formal record that a voter has tried, but has been unable, to cast a vote and is evidence of a voter's concern about the conduct of an election. If a voter wants to make a complaint, marking a tendered ballot is the first step in pursuing the complaints procedure. They are under a duty to act impartially at all times.
Tellers volunteer on behalf of political parties identifiable by their rosettebut have no legal or official status, and voters are not obliged to give them their elector number. Nonvoters are also barred from making banking transactions in neighbouring Bolivia and Peru. Of the four countries, only Australia makes voting mandatory, and its turnout rate is consistently well above those of the other countries. Further, while the turnout rate has declined in the three countries with voluntary voting in recent years, it has been remarkably stable in Australia.
This pattern is not limited to these Anglo-American democracies: The turnout rate is also affected when a country adopts or drops compulsory rules, or when a country only applies compulsory voting in a certain region or among certain people.
For example, the six Australian states adopted compulsory voting at different times, and, as a result, participation rates jumped abruptly in each case. Conversely, when the Netherlands abandoned compulsory voting inturnout declined sharply.
In Schaffhausen, turnout tends to be highest among all Swiss cantons. In five Latin American countries with compulsory voting, the rules are not enforced among senior citizens, and turnout rates in these countries tend to drop among individuals above the age at which turnout is no longer required see box, opposite.
Compulsory voting's effects on turnout are more pronounced among certain segments of the electorate. By attaching a penalty to abstention, compulsory voting decreases disincentives for turnout among these underrepresented societal groups and, as such, their participation rates typically begin to approach those of more mainstream groups where voting is forced.
Of course, by increasing participation among these typically dormant groups, compulsory voting produces voting populations that are more likely to include individuals who are apathetic or unknowledgeable about politics and government.
One effect of compelling these individuals to the polls is an increase in the percentage of blank and spoilt ballots. Further, as many such individuals do complete a ballot paper, compulsory voting can increase the incidence of votes that do not necessarily align with ideological or policy preferences, and instead are cast randomly, perhaps in response to a hot-button issue or a scandal, or reflecting a psychological attachment to a political party.
And, for individuals who are sceptical of the democratic system, forcing engagement with it may exacerbate their negative orientations toward democracy itself.
An alternative perspective is that would-be apathetic individuals, and those who are negatively oriented toward democracy, will take up an interest in political affairs and become more civically oriented where their participation is required. Moreover, such individuals have the option of spoiling their ballots or leaving them blank where forced to vote.
This viewpoint provocatively suggests that it is possible to legislate a politically informed and engaged populace with minimal drawbacks, though empirical research has returned mixed support for such an effect. Thus, the jury is still out. As research on compulsory voting continues, we will hopefully arrive at a more definitive understanding of its effects on citizen behaviour and attitudes.UK BRITAIN is asking INDIA help for its Economy after BREXIT
Compulsory rules alter the character of the voting population, so it is reasonable to suspect that political outcomes will also vary across countries with compulsory and voluntary voting. First, party system characteristics may be affected by compulsory voting. By motivating participation among typically disadvantaged groups, compulsory voting can benefit parties of the left. In Australia, for example, compulsory voting is generally thought to advantage the Labor Party over the Liberal-National Coalition.
Further, party systems may become more fragmented where voting is required: While this dynamic could, in theory, benefit parties on both ideological extremes, it appears that the far right profits more from compulsory voting than the far left. Differences in the makeup of governments in compulsory and voluntary systems, can, in turn, affect societal outcomes. For example, outside of Latin America at least, income inequality tends to be lower where voting is mandated, likely because socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals participate more where voting is not optional, selecting politicians of the left and others with policy positions that cater to their needs.
Further, compulsory voting has been linked to reduced political corruption, potentially because it incentivises disillusioned voters, many of whom would otherwise stay home, to go to the polls and vote against improbity.