What's about the correlation between Dementia and Blood Pressure? What's about the effects of age and gender on sympathetic neuronal. Objective: Determine which of the following factors: blood pressure (BP), age, gender and body mas. Below is the age and gender chart and graph of data from the exercise. 1. State a problem about the relationship of age and gender to blood pressure. The rule.The Right Blood Pressure Level According To Age And Gender
For each increasing decade of age, mean CRAE decreased by 4. Similarly, mean CRVE decreased by 3. Mean AVR decreased with increasing age, both in men and women, up to age 70 to 79 years Fig. In women aged 80 years or older, mean AVR was unchanged but increased by 0. Mean AVR was consistently higher in women than in men across the entire age spectrum of our study group Fig.
Mean CRAE decreased by 1. AVR decreased by 0. Further adjustment for smoking and BMI, in addition to age and sex, did not alter the inverse linear relationships between retinal vessel widths and BP. These inverse relationships remained after further adjustment for blood glucose level, in addition to age, sex, and smoking data not shown. Discussion Using the same protocol and methods as the ARIC study, our findings in this general older Australian population were very similar to those from the U.
Retinal vessel diameters narrowed as age BP increased. This inverse linear relationship was similar in men and women and persisted after adjusting for possible confounders, including age, sex, BP, smoking, blood sugar levels, and BMI.
Possible selection bias due to the exclusion of participants who either had no fundus photographs taken or had ungradable photographs was considered. Almost identical age- and sex-adjusted MABP in the excluded subgroup of persons and the study group suggests that substantial bias is unlikely to have occurred by excluding these participants. Decreasing AVR was found with increasing age or BP, because arteriolar diameters decreased to a greater extent than venular diameters. Retinal veins are thought to have relatively constant caliber unless there is a complicating condition such as raised intracranial pressure associated with papilledema, ischemia associated with diabetic retinopathy or central or local retinal venous obstruction.
This may be explained by random variation due to the smaller number of subjects in the older age group.
Survival bias could also explain this finding. Men with small AVR may have died earlier, and those who continued to live to more than 80 years of age could have been more likely to have large AVR. No comparison can be made with the ARIC study in this aspect, because their participants were younger 50 to 71 years than our sample.
In the ARIC study average age was In our study group average age, In the older group, the rigidity of the arteriolar wall caused by age-related involutional sclerosis of retinal arterioles may prevent the same degree of narrowing that is seen in younger persons.
A possible explanation of such gender difference is the vasodilating effect of estrogen. Estrogen, through a receptor-mediated pathway, may upregulate endothelial expression of the nitric oxide synthase gene, leading to increased nitric oxide production and resultant arteriolar dilatation.
Further investigation of the relationships between retinal vessel diameters and hormonal parameters in older women in the BMES is now underway. This may also suggest that the vasodilating effects of estrogen are greater at high BP levels. There are several potential limitations in evaluating retinal vessel calibers by using our study methods.
First, on color photographs, the column of blood cells was surrounded by a transparent sleeve of plasma; therefore, it was the column of formed blood cells rather than the actual internal diameters of the vessel lumen that was measured.
Therefore, measurements of retinal vessel width from fundus photographs, at least to some extent, may reflect arteriosclerosis. Second, only a single BP measurement was obtained from each participant in our study, compared with three measurements over a 6-year period in the ARIC study. Finally, BP taken at one particular time may not represent the average BP of a person over a long period. In conclusion, using a computer-assisted method to measure retinal vessel width, we found that the diameters of retinal arterioles and venules narrowed with increasing age and were inversely and monotonically related to BP level, independent of age.
Such inverse linear relationships were similar in men and women in our study group and persisted after adjustment for possible confounders. Women had a larger AVR than men, indicating that possible effects of estrogen on arterioles are worth further investigation.
Our findings are in keeping with those reported from the ARIC study that generalized retinal arteriolar narrowing is inversely related to current BP and to BP levels measured 3 and 6 years earlier. Findings from both these studies suggest that retinal arteriolar narrowing may be the result of long-term microvascular damage caused by elevated BP.
Submitted for publication October 31, ; revised January 13 and February 27, ; accepted March 27, Mitchell, None The publication costs of this article were defrayed in part by page charge payment. View Original Download Slide Digitized retinal image with grid defining the measurement area zone B 0. The five equidistant measurement markers inset: Digitized retinal image with grid defining the measurement area zone B 0.
Human Biology: Blood Pressure Lab
As age increases in both males and females, blood pressure increases. However, the increase in males in more substantial compared to females. Use your knowledge about the heart and the circulatory system to make a hypothesis about how the average blood pressure for a group of people would be affected by manipulating the age and gender of the group members.
The average blood pressure would increase in both the female and male groups if the age of the subjects increased. If the males were added to the female group respective to age, the average blood pressure for the female group would increase. The reverse would occur if females were added to male groups.
Additionally, blending age groups per gender would fluctuate the blood pressure depending upon the age group added and amount of people. How will you use the investigation screen to test your hypothesis? What steps will you follow?
What data will you record? I recorded the blood pressure data into the table and utilized and compared the information per gender and age group to test my hypothesis. Analyze the result of your experiment. Explain any patterns you observed. Blood pressure does increase with age for the male group. An anomaly in the female group is a lower blood pressure in the range compared to the range.
Additionally, medical history and informati0on provided explain some of the different and higher results for outside the normal range readings. Did the result of your experiment support your hypothesis? Why or why not? Based on your experiment what conclusion can you draw about the relationship of age and gender to group blood pressure averages?
The results of the experiment supported my hypothesis for the most part. There is a disparity in the female age groups of and where the is lower. Overall, as age increases, regardless of gender, blood pressure increases.