Transgender People - Encyclopedia of Social Work
Chapter 1: Communities, Social Sustainability, and Social Work. 20 .. Each chapter begins with a brief biography of the contributing authors. There is a .. Instructions: Answer the reflection questions in relation to the case study them to job opportunities that can match their competencies will surely. The Relationship Between Beliefs and Values in Social Work. 11 in Jesus . important is the fallacy of our age which assumes that fundamental moral values can quite compatible with the social work Code of Ethics, and in fact is the soil. A summary of the history and evidence around relationship-based practice in social work.
Relationship-based practice: emergent themes in social work literature | Iriss
Any exceptions to two genders are not to be taken seriously. There are no transfers from one gender to another except ceremonial ones for example, masquerades. Everyone must be classified as a member of one gender or another.
Transgender people transgress these fundamental assumptions Meyerowitz, This explains why the emergence of transgender people has been controversial, and why they, like gay and lesbian people, have struggled to gain civil rights and public acceptance. Using this framework as context, gender can thus be defined as follows: Transgender can be defined as follows: For some, this nonconformity may be transient or intended to reveal the performative nature of gender.
Transsexuals is an inclusive term made up of diverse subgroups: Not included in this category are intersex people who are born with physiological or hormonal attributes that do not conform to a binary system. They expose the limitations of the natural attitude toward gender.
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- Transgender People
Babies born with healthy and well-functioning genitals that do not conform to male or female anatomy are routinely subjected to surgical interventions to force their bodies into conformity, often resulting in chronic pain or inability to experience sexual pleasure. In recent years, there has been activism on the part of these people to change this practice Intersex Initiative, Transgender and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Movement Transgender people have played a major role in the gay rights movement, and yet have struggled for recognition within it.
Transgender people initiated the seminal event in the modern gay rights history, the Stonewall riot in They were active in organizing early gay rights organizations. The early gay and lesbian movements rejected transgender people, however, seeing them as a threat to wider acceptance Brown, Transgender issues were seen as irrelevant to gay and lesbian people.
This view still persists in some feminist thought Ruby, Transgender people were excluded from the historic march in Washington. Not until did the Human Rights Campaign, the largest gay and lesbian rights organization in the country, amend its mission to include transgender people, affirm that it will only support federal Employment Non-Discrimination Act legislation that is inclusive of transgender people.
They also launched a number of initiatives related to transgender rights National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, Uninformed health professionals may associate transgender with psychopathology, which can result in poor care, inappropriate referrals to mental health treatment, and medical records issues that can be damaging Lev, Transgender and Social Work An understanding of transgender people and issues is critical for social work on the micro, mezzo, macro, and meta levels.
On the direct practice level, social workers work with transgender people across the life span.
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As adults, transgender people may require advocacy in getting their needs met with respect to health, mental health, and other social services. Aging transgender people have complex needs that have not been adequately studied Witten, Social workers need to serve transgender people and their families in a manner that is informed, competent, empowering, and in keeping with the code of ethics.
Since then, interest has grown rapidly and the scope of care ethics has extended beyond individual relationships to inform political debate Held, Care ethics entails a shift in focus away from rules and rights towards responsibilities and relationships. There is, therefore, no one way of doing RBP. Care ethics are proposed by Meagher and Parton as offering an alternative to dominant managerial modes of practice in social work.
Relationship-based practice and policy Increasingly, RBP can be found to resonate with the direction of Scottish public policy set out in the report of the Christie Commission Scottish Government, For example, policies such as Getting it right for every child GIRFEC emphasise the need to hear the voice of children and families in a spirit of openness and trust.
However, it is not just in children and families policy that the Christie principles resonate. They are also apparent inter alia in the Carers Strategy, the National Clinical Strategy and Community Justice and Mental Health initiatives, to the extent that they are now spoken of as reflecting a particular Scottish approach to public services.Scientists Prove: Your Birth Month Defines Your Health and Personality
RBP thus, potentially, becomes a cornerstone of social policy, percolating, not just individual relationships but the ways in which workers across different professional disciplines and wider communities interact and relate with one another. Features of relationship-based practice RBP draws on psychodynamic ideas, most closely associated with Sigmund Freud and developed by others.
These explain human personality and functioning in terms of conscious and unconscious desires and beliefs, feelings and emotions, based on life experiences, including early childhood. While RBP does not require a sophisticated understanding of the psychology behind this, effective social work requires that a worker tune into the emotional world of a client and be able to communicate this understanding within the relationship.
It also moves the concept of relationship beyond the individual to incorporate an awareness of contextual factors such as power, professional role, poverty, social exclusion and political ideology.
A sense of purpose To stress the centrality of human relationships in social work is not to say that these are, in themselves, sufficient to ensure good practice. Relationships are not intrinsically good or bad — they can be either. They exist in a mandated context and are formed for a particular purpose Ingram, — towards a client achieving positive change. But this is a challenge, partly because relationships are complicated and subject to a range of psychodynamic processes, which require that social workers understand and use themselves, centrally, within their work.
Beckett and Horner tell us that change comes about through relationships. Even in situations where programmed interventions are employed, their impact is secondary to the social worker—client relationship Nicholson and Artze, Qualities of hope and expectancy that change will occur are also implicated in successful outcomes.
What clients want The literature gives clear messages of what clients value.
Their conception of friendship identifies qualities of reciprocity of sharing aspects of oneself; of flexibility going the extra mile, perhaps through offering small gifts or maintaining contact out of hoursbut also straight talking. Kleipoedszus suggests that relationships can be forged through conflict; genuine engagement and negotiation rather than artificial sensitivity make it possible for workers to encourage and nurture change rather than demanding it.
Smith and colleagues identify the centrality of effective relationships even in work with involuntary clients. In all of this, everyday acts of care and recognition are more important than formal standards and procedural requirements.
Professionalism and relationships A renewed emphasis on relationships challenges many of the assumptions that have built up over what it is to be a professional. Professionalism is often associated with certainty, expertise and theoretical knowledge Brodie and colleagues, Noddingshowever, distinguishes between professionalism and professionalisation. She suggests that the latter is the result of a codified and rule-bound conception of professionalism that derives from a quest for status.
There is, however, little connection between such rule-bound professionalisation and positive outcomes. Indeed, it can create a distance between social workers and clients, that a more relational form of professionalism might work to reduce. Murphy and colleagueson the other hand, suggest that the professional role significantly compromises the ability to form genuine relationships.
Part of the difficulty in reconciling different understandings of professionalism is the tendency in the UK to conceive of separate personal and professional selves. Practice traditions such as social pedagogy introduce a third element, the private. This poses challenges for workers and for organisations that operate to a narrow understanding of what constitutes acceptable personal and professional boundaries Maidment, It is important to distinguish between boundaries, which are dynamic and can be deployed flexibly, and barriers, which are static and prioritise consistent application.
In practice, individual practitioners act in ways that might be thought to be subversive of practice norms Alexander and Charles, Coadyfor instance, offers examples of the kind of flexibility required in negotiating everyday care practices.
One of the difficulties that can arise in increasingly managerial and regulated practice cultures, however, is a tendency to minimise the complexity of such boundary work and to operate fixed understandings of the lines between professional, personal and private domains. This leaves workers vulnerable to disciplinary action should they cross externally determined boundaries McLaughlin, This is not fixed and, as we enter relationships, we draw upon what we feel is required to engage with others within a given context.
In social work, this is made more complex by the addition of professional values, roles and expectations. Hennessey argues that this balancing act should be explicit and not shied away from; rather, it should be harnessed and used to bring about change.
Barnes and colleagues go further and underline the interdependence between social workers and service users, where both parties bring their own experiences and contexts to the encounter, laying the foundations for a trusting and dynamic relationship. This requires a social worker to be able to develop a relationship that has a level of trust and which facilitates the sharing of emotions.
This may require a degree of emotional exposure in order to truly understand the feelings of another and be able to express this in a genuine and attuned manner. Transference and counter-transference A psychodynamic perspective can help social workers consider the impact of unconscious previous experiences within relationship building. The concept of transference reminds us that individuals can unconsciously transfer past feelings into the present.
Ruch illustrates this with an example of previous negative experiences of parenting being transferred by some service users into the relationship with their social worker. This dynamic can often be difficult to understand and manage and social workers can, in turn, find themselves reacting unconsciously, in a process known as counter-transference. Equally, social workers need to be mindful of their own unconscious transference and how that may impact on dynamics within relationships they form.
Such dynamics can be powerful and frightening, but can also be hugely helpful for social workers in understanding the inner worlds of service users and themselves. In turn this can lead to more positive relationship building Agass, Emotional intelligence Ingram highlights the role of emotional intelligence as a trait and skill that can help social workers manage the emotional complexities of practice.