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A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed Most countries have a tax system in place to pay for public/ common/agreed national needs and government functions: some levy a flat . with an income tax, the consumer feels poorer and for this reason he wants to work more. Nobody likes to pay taxes, but we all enjoy our roads, parks, and public libraries. Understanding the government to meet some of the citizens' wants (on the first list). 2. Taxes are as Who paid the tax, how was it collected, and how did the. Fees, charges and levies funds it needs for its policies – from taxpayers, from charge payers, or from This handbook helps the UK government maintain public trust. to meet the ethical standards in this document and to operate transparently. iv. .. Sometimes ministers want to start early on a new policy which is.
The focus of prevention Promoting wellbeing 2. This is not creating or adding to their caring role but including them in an approach supporting the person to live as independently as possible for as long as possible. In regard to carers, the local authority should consider how they can be supported to look after their own health and wellbeing and to have a life of their own alongside their caring responsibilities.
For this group of people prevention needs to be considered through other means, such as the provision of community services and activities that would help support people to maintain an independent life.
Case Study An older man lives alone with some support from his daughter who works full-time. He needs occasional personal care to remain living independently with dignity, and it is likely that these needs will increase. An assessment would consider all of his needs, including those currently being met by his daughter, along with the outcomes he wishes to achieve. Community groups, voluntary organisations, and buddying services could support the father to reduce the social isolation that he may be feeling and maximise opportunities to look after his own health and wellbeing and participate in local community activities.
This, in turn could lessen the impact of caring on his daughter and enable her to continue to support her father effectively alongside paid employment. In this example, the aspects of wellbeing relating to social wellbeing and family relationships might be promoted. Developing resilience and promoting individual strength 2.
Local authorities should actively promote participation in providing interventions that are co-produced with individuals, families, friends, carers and the community. Such interventions can contribute to developing individual resilience and help promote self-reliance and independence, as well as ensuring that services reflect what the people who use them want.
Case Study Derby City Council used co-production to develop clear and easy to use customer information to support their new customer journey for self-directed support. New information that has been produced includes an assessment form, support planning tools for people using services, customer leaflets and a staff handbook. A small project team held discussions and workshops to identify information that needed improving to be clearer and suggestions for improvement, for example, a new assessment form.
Staff working in adult social care assessment teams had training on how to make best use of the new suite of information. The inclusive approach taken to re-designing the information took longer than an internally managed process, but has resulted in better information, informed people using services and bringing their own perspective and experience.
The co-production approach led to the development of key principles which can be used in other areas of communication. The approach is being continued. A good starting point for a discussion that helps develop resilience and promotes independence would be to ask: This approach recognises the value in the resources of voluntary and community groups and the other resources of the local area. Developing a local approach to preventative support 2.
Local authorities should develop a clear, local approach to prevention which sets out how they plan to fulfill this responsibility, taking into account the different types and focus of preventative support as described above.
Developing a local approach to preventative support is a responsibility wider than adult care and support alone, and should include the involvement, by way of example, of those responsible for public health, leisure, transport, and housing services which are relevant to the provision of care and support. This could include connecting to other key areas of local preventative activity outside care, including housing, planning and public health. Understanding the breadth of available local resources will help the local authority to consider what gaps may remain, and what further steps it should itself take to promote the market or to put in place its own services.
Local approaches to prevention should be built on the resources of the local community, including local support networks and facilities provided by other partners and voluntary organisations. Considering the services, facilities and resources which contribute towards preventing or delaying the development of needs for care and support is a core element of fulfilling this responsibility.
A local authority should engage local providers of care and support in all aspects of delivery and encourage providers to innovate and respond flexibly to develop interventions that contribute to preventing needs for care and support. In doing so, a local authority should draw on existing analyses such as the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment, and work with other local partners such as the NHS and voluntary sector to develop a broader, shared understanding of current and future needs, and support integrated approaches to prevention.
Understanding unmet need will be crucial to developing a longer-term approach to prevention that reflects the true needs of the local population. This assessment should also be shared with local partners, such as through the health and wellbeing board, to contribute to wider intelligence for local strategies.
Preventative services, facilities or resources are often most effective when brought about through partnerships between different parts of the local authority and between other agencies and the community such as those people who are likely to use and benefit from these services. As a result of a major operation, she now has a permanent colostomy bag. After only a month Beryl was successfully discharged from hospital to her own home with a reablement package from Leicester City Council and support from the housing association, Midland Heart, to help her regain her independence.
If Beryl had not received this support, she would have been discharged to a more costly care home. The support service has assisted her attendance at medical appointments with her GP and monitored the impact of her medication.
Working with other partners to focus on prevention 2. Preventing needs will often be most effective when action is undertaken at a local level, with different organisations working together to understand how the actions of each may impact on the other. Across the local landscape, the role of other bodies including the local NHS for example: GPs, dentists, pharmacists, ophthalmologistswelfare and benefits advisers for example at Jobcentre Plusthe police, fire service, prisons in respect of those persons detained or released with care and support needs, service providers and others will also be important in developing a comprehensive approach.
This responsibility includes in particular a focus on integrating with partners to prevent, reduce or delay needs for care and support. Identifying those who may benefit from preventative support 2. Helping people to access such types of support when they need it is likely to have a significant impact on their longer-term health and wellbeing, as well as potentially reducing or delaying the need for ongoing care and support from the local authority.
There are a number of interactions and access points that could bring a person into contact with the local authority or a partner organisation and act as a trigger point for the local authority to consider whether the provision of a preventative service, or some other step is appropriate.
These might include, for example: Local authorities and the voluntary sector should work together on how it can share this information to gain a fuller picture of local need as possible. Authorities should bring data from these different sources together to stratify who in the community may need care and support in the future and what types of needs they are likely to have, and use this information to target their preventative services effectively.
Approaches to identifying those people who may benefit from preventative support should consider how to locate people in such circumstances, for example: In addition to any more targeted approaches to communicating with individuals who may benefit from preventative support, this service should include information and advice about preventative services, facilities or resources, so that anyone can find out about the types of support available locally that may meet their individual needs and circumstances, and how to access them.
Helping people access preventative support 2. A preventative approach requires a broad range of interventions, as one size will not fit all. However, where a local authority is not required to carry out such an assessment under the Care Act, it should nonetheless take steps to establish whether the person identified will benefit from the type of preventative support proposed.
The local authority is not required to provide a care and support plan or a support plan where it only takes steps under section 2 of the Care Act; however, it should consider which aspects of a plan should be provided in these circumstances, and should provide such information as is necessary to enable the person to understand: Where the person refuses, but continues to appear to have needs for care and support or for support, in the case of a carerthen the local authority must proceed to offer the individual an assessment.
This is regardless of whether, in fact, the adult or carer is assessed as having any care and support needs or support needs. As part of the assessment process, the local authority considers the capacity of the person to manage their needs or achieve the outcomes which matter to them, and allows for access to preventative support before a decision is made on whether the person has eligible needs see chapter 6 on assessment.
This should not assume that others are willing or able to take up caring roles. A young carer becomes vulnerable when their caring role risks impacting upon their emotional or physical wellbeing and their prospects in education and life.
A local authority may become aware that a child is carrying out a caring role through an assessment or informed through family members or a school. A local authority should consider how supporting the adult with needs for care and support can prevent the young carer from under taking excessive or inappropriate care and support responsibilities.
This is to ensure that all people are provided with targeted, personalised information and advice that can support them to take steps to prevent or reduce their needs, connect more effectively with their local community, and delay the onset of greater needs to maximise their independence and quality of life.
Where a person has some needs that are eligible, and also has some other needs that are not deemed to be eligible, the local authority must provide information and advice on services facilities or resources that would contribute to preventing, reducing or delaying the needs which are not eligible, and this should be aligned and be consistent with the care and support plan for the person with care needs, or support plan for the carer.
Charging for preventative support 2. The Care and Support Preventing Needs for Care and Support Regulations continue to allow local authorities to make a charge for the provision of certain preventative services, facilities or resources.
The regulations also provide that some other specified services must be provided free of charge. Some effective forms of prevention result from partnerships with other public services, voluntary and community organisations and other providers. In developing these partnerships local authorities should consider what obstacles there may be which might prevent people on low incomes from benefitting from the activities and take reasonable steps to avoid this.
In some cases, charging may be necessary in order to make a preventative service viable or keep a service running. This does not need to follow the method of the financial assessment used for mainstream charging purposes; and the use of such a process is likely to be disproportionate. In any event, a local authority must not charge more than it costs to provide or arrange for the service, facility or resource.
This is for all adults, irrespective of whether they have eligible needs for ongoing care and support. Although such types of support will usually be provided as a preventative measure under section 2 of the Act, they may also be provided as part of a package of care and support to meet eligible needs.
To give an example, sheet steel is imported by a machine manufacturer. That manufacturer will pay the VAT on the purchase price, remitting that amount to the government. The manufacturer will then transform the steel into a machine, selling the machine for a higher price to a wholesale distributor.
The manufacturer will collect the VAT on the higher price, but will remit to the government only the excess related to the "value added" the price over the cost of the sheet steel. The wholesale distributor will then continue the process, charging the retail distributor the VAT on the entire price to the retailer, but remitting only the amount related to the distribution mark-up to the government. For a VAT and sales tax of identical rates, the total tax paid is the same, but it is paid at differing points in the process.
VAT is usually administrated by requiring the company to complete a VAT return, giving details of VAT it has been charged referred to as input tax and VAT it has charged to others referred to as output tax. The difference between output tax and input tax is payable to the Local Tax Authority. Many tax authorities have introduced automated VAT which has increased accountability and auditabilityby utilizing computer-systems, thereby also enabling anti-cybercrime offices as well.
Sales tax Sales taxes are levied when a commodity is sold to its final consumer. Retail organizations contend that such taxes discourage retail sales.Everything you think you know about addiction is wrong - Johann Hari
The question of whether they are generally progressive or regressive is a subject of much current debate. People with higher incomes spend a lower proportion of them, so a flat-rate sales tax will tend to be regressive. It is therefore common to exempt food, utilities and other necessities from sales taxes, since poor people spend a higher proportion of their incomes on these commodities, so such exemptions make the tax more progressive.
Tax - Wikipedia
This is the classic "You pay for what you spend" tax, as only those who spend money on non-exempt i. A small number of U. Such states tend to have a moderate to large amount of tourism or inter-state travel that occurs within their borders, allowing the state to benefit from taxes from people the state would otherwise not tax.
In this way, the state is able to reduce the tax burden on its citizens. Additionally, New Hampshire and Tennessee levy state income taxes only on dividends and interest income. Of the above states, only Alaska and New Hampshire do not levy a state sales tax. Additional information can be obtained at the Federation of Tax Administrators website. In the United States, there is a growing movement  for the replacement of all federal payroll and income taxes both corporate and personal with a national retail sales tax and monthly tax rebate to households of citizens and legal resident aliens.
The tax proposal is named FairTax. Excise An excise duty is an indirect tax imposed upon goods during the process of their manufacture, production or distribution, and is usually proportionate to their quantity or value. Excise duties were first introduced into England in the yearas part of a scheme of revenue and taxation devised by parliamentarian John Pym and approved by the Long Parliament.
These duties consisted of charges on beer, ale, cider, cherry wine and tobacco, to which list were afterwards added paper, soap, candles, malt, hops, and sweets. The basic principle of excise duties was that they were taxes on the production, manufacture or distribution of articles which could not be taxed through the customs houseand revenue derived from that source is called excise revenue proper.
The fundamental conception of the term is that of a tax on articles produced or manufactured in a country. In the taxation of such articles of luxury as spirits, beer, tobacco, and cigars, it has been the practice to place a certain duty on the importation of these articles a customs duty. For example, a high excise is used to discourage alcohol consumption, relative to other goods.
This may be combined with hypothecation if the proceeds are then used to pay for the costs of treating illness caused by alcohol abuse.
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Similar taxes may exist on tobaccopornographyetc. A carbon tax is a tax on the consumption of carbon-based non-renewable fuels, such as petrol, diesel-fuel, jet fuels, and natural gas. The object is to reduce the release of carbon into the atmosphere. In the United Kingdom, vehicle excise duty is an annual tax on vehicle ownership.
Tariff An import or export tariff also called customs duty or impost is a charge for the movement of goods through a political border. Tariffs discourage tradeand they may be used by governments to protect domestic industries.
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A proportion of tariff revenues is often hypothecated to pay government to maintain a navy or border police. The classic ways of cheating a tariff are smuggling or declaring a false value of goods. Tax, tariff and trade rules in modern times are usually set together because of their common impact on industrial policyinvestment policyand agricultural policy.
A trade bloc is a group of allied countries agreeing to minimize or eliminate tariffs against trade with each other, and possibly to impose protective tariffs on imports from outside the bloc. A customs union has a common external tariffand the participating countries share the revenues from tariffs on goods entering the customs union.
In some societies, tariffs also could be imposed by local authorities on the movement of goods between regions or via specific internal gateways. A notable example is the likinwhich became an important revenue source for local governments in the late Qing China.
License fees[ edit ] Occupational taxes or license fees may be imposed on businesses or individuals engaged in certain businesses. Many jurisdictions impose a tax on vehicles.
Poll tax A poll tax, also called a per capita tax, or capitation tax, is a tax that levies a set amount per individual. It is an example of the concept of fixed tax. One of the earliest taxes mentioned in the Bible of a half-shekel per annum from each adult Jew Ex. Poll taxes are administratively cheap because they are easy to compute and collect and difficult to cheat. Economists have considered poll taxes economically efficient because people are presumed to be in fixed supply and poll taxes therefore do not lead to economic distortions.